Historically, Poland has always been located at the crossroads from East to West. For centuries, Poland faced with different cultures, at first it was a pagan, then the Christianity represented by Orthodoxy and Catholicism, and later in the era of the formation of the Rzecz Pospolita Protestantism had the effect on the development of the country and even Islam of the Ottoman Empire. This interlacing of cultures could did affect the historical and cultural heritage of Poland. Poland currently combines the many cultures of different peoples and civilizations.
And in such circumstances it is not surprising that Poland can be proud of their glorious artists, writers, musicians, film makers, etc.
Perhaps the most significant contribution to world culture, Poland has made through its literature. The first Polish texts are dated of the XIII century. During the Renaissance, Baroque and the Enlightenment ages were acting such well-known European masters as Jan Kochanowski, Nicholas Sep-Sazhinski and Ignatius Krasitski.
In the beginning of XIX century wrote his magnificent works world literature classic Adam Mickiewicz. The most famous of which is "Pan Tadeusz", written in 1834.
At the end of XIX century lived such writers like Alexander Glovatskaya and Henrik Sienkiewicz, whose novel "Quo Vadis" (1896) received international fame and made a great contribution not only to the culture of Poland, but also to the world culture. For the creativity Sienkiewicz was awarded the Nobel Prize.
At the beginning of XX century wrote the author Wladyslaw Reymont, who became famous through the novel "The Peasants" (1902-1909), and had also been awarded with a Nobel Prize in literature.
Later in the XX century, became well-known Kazimir Verzinsky, Maria Dombrovska, Jan Parandowski. From the most recent authors should be marked Czeslaw Milosz, another Polish Nobel laureate in literature, and Stanislaw Lem, whose science fiction works have become popular worldwide.
Painting in Poland reached its peak in the XIX century. Now the works of the masters of that time can be seen in museums and galleries in Warsaw, Krakow and other cities of Poland. Undoubtedly, the most prominent artists in Poland are Jan Matejko (1838-1893) and his disciple Stanislaw Wyspianski (1869 - 1907).
Matejko is famous for his paintings «The Union of Lublin», «The Battle of Grunwald», «The Constitution of May 3», etc. Wyspianski is famous for its stained-glass murals of the Franciscan church and the Wawel Cathedral in Krakow.
The founder of the musical art in Poland is Frederic Chopin (1810 - 1849), whose works became very popular throughout Europe. However, it is also impossible not to mention Michael Oginskiy, who wrote famous polonaise «Farewell to the Fatherland» or «Polonaise of Oginskiy».
In the late XIX - early XX century the leading place among the composers occupied Karol Szymanowski (1882 - 1937). His music with folk motifs gained great popularity in Europe. After the war, jazz became popular in Poland. Leopold Tyrmand organized Poland's first International Jazz Festival, now known as the Jazz Jamboree - the oldest European jazz festival.
In the socialist period the most popular group was Chervony Gitary and the singer Maryla Rodovich whose discs were sold with thousands of copies.
At the moment Poland also has worldwide popular artists. Among them can be marked a world-renowned group Behemoth, performing music in the style of black metal. Concerts of this group gather huge stadiums in the U.S. and Europe.
In Poland cinematography is also developing. In the early 90's Polish filmmakers have participated in the filming of Steven Spielberg «Schindler's List», as a result three members of the crew were awarded with Oscars. Among the famous directors may be named Krzysztof Zanussi, Andrzej Wajda and Roman Polanski, who are also awarded with Oscars.